Posts Tagged ‘ie marketing#8217;

27
Sep

Hello everyone,

today I just want to open up an issue I was thinking about over the last few days…No answers, just questions.

Probably most of you have noticed the “bend-gate” of the last few days.. The new Iphone 6 bends in people’s pockets… Here is an illustration.

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So, angry Iphone users are wondering why they are paying so much money…But wait a second! Bending is not so bad, as Samsung exemplifies in related products!!

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So, could apple (with a bit of R&D and a lot of marketing investment of course), could turn the “bend-gate” into a “Bend-able phone that everyone loves”? Something like this:

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What would it take? As I said in the beginning, I am not sure at all. Could it be that Apple is starting to lose a bit of their marketing magic? Or will they turn this around, sooner or later?

What do you think? Well, let’s wait and see!

Best,

Antonis

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

13
Sep

Imagine you want to create a movie. The only requirement is that its story should be based on a specific book. The good news are that this book contains a great variety of amazing stories: The creation of a world by a rather interventionist almighty god, successful and disastrous adventures of whole nations under the guidance of inspiring leaders, wise prophets who fight against unfaithful monarchs, and an old man saving animals from a great rainfall.

Now, why would anyone pick the last story? Well, it may have a great brand name: Noah!

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Why is this important? If you ask people about important elements of movies they would enjoy watching, you will get the answer “a good story” very frequently, but the answer “a story that I am familiar with” very rarely, if ever. Yet, the movie industry knows that what will make people watch a movie is (at least in many cases) the latter. The abundance of remakes and sequels attest to this fact.

Let’s take the case of science fiction films. Why experiment with an original and unknown story like this:

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When you can make remakes, sequels, or prequels of a story that science fiction fans are familiar with, like this:

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In conclusion, a strong brand is without a doubt a very strong marketing tool, sometimes the most important one for market success. It may be even stronger than the product itself, even if in many cases consumers will be reluctant to admit it. This fact becomes even stronger with the wide use of social media. It is a lot easier and cooler for anyone to twit “Check out the new Spiderman movie” than “Check out this new movie that I find interesting, but you have never heard about before”.

 

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

30
Aug

The summer is almost over, and in this  post I would like to discuss issues related with the “King” of the summer industries – tourism. The question was born in my head during my vacations at my hometown, in Crete. Specifically, the official numbers for Greece – and Crete in particular – showed an increase in the number of tourists in relation to 2013 (which was also a good year). In addition, I could personally observe that there was a big number of tourists strolling on the streets. Nevertheless, the owners of tourism related businesses (e.g., small hotels, gift shops, etc.) were complaining that their business was down. And a quick look inside these businesses confirmed their view: Most shops and small hotels were not nearly as busy as last year.

So how could both of these opposing facts be true? I believe it is because of the existence of two pretty well-defined segments of tourists. The first segment, let’s call them “the relaxers” primarily care about resting and relaxing. What they want from their vacation is as few hustle as possible, even if that means missing out on a few interesting stuff. Naturally, they prefer a vacation package that they book from a travel agent. This includes a big hotel (usually part of a chain), which offers them everything: 3 meals, shops, cafes, bars, close access to a nice beach. They typically leave their hotel only for pre-scheduled excursions either to the closest town, or to a few main attractions.

The second segment, let’s call them “the explorers” primarily care about exploring and getting to know the place they visit. What they want from their vacation is new experiences, and are willing to exert more effort in discovering the “secrets” of the place they are visiting. They usually stay at small hotels, but they spend very little time there. On the contrary, they leave their hotel early in the morning, and it is not unusual for them to eat, shop, have drinks, etc. at a different place each day – or even during the same day. They plan most details of their trip on their own, perhaps with the help of friends and “experts” (e.g., tripadvisor).

So, what seems to have happened in Crete this summer, is that many tourists came (thus, the increase in the gross numbers), but most of them were “relaxers”, and few of them were “explorers” (thus, the decrease in tourism revenues for small tourism related businesses).

Now, is this a problem? I believe it is. In an uncertain industry, such as tourism, it is risky to concentrate only on one market segment. For instance, relaxers would go to any place that their travel agent sends them, as long as they can relax. But travel agents operate based on profit, so they would have no problem to send their clients to other locations, as long as they get a better price. So low prices (at the package level) are critically important for that segment, and can result in big changes in demand from year to year.

I could mention several examples, but perhaps the most convincing is the following. The Greek Ministry of Tourism, seems to want to target both the relaxers and the explorers. For instance, take a look at the following ad – it seems to be targeting for the most part the “explorers”. So are many of the videos of the official agency for tourism in Greece.

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In summary, it looks that the good results in terms of “sales” (i.e., gross tourism numbers) are not the result of a careful marketing strategy building on the competitive advantages of the brand “Greece”, but a result of competitive pricing (which, may be a result of the ongoing economic crisis in Greece). If that is the case, the positive results of Greek tourism during the last couple of years are not likely to be sustainable.  They will be over together the price advantage, largely stemming from the crisis. In order to ensure long-lasting market growth,   an aligned marketing strategy is necessary.

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

 

12
Jul

Today I wanted to paraphrase a well-known business article (It is the Distribution, stupid!) to showcase the importance of managing Media properly when building the Personal Brand Identity. And for doing so we have two perfect examples that reflect what should be and should not be done.

lebron james

IKER CASILLAS AND HIS MISSTEP

Iker Casillas has managed its Personal Branding relatively well for many years. I am not sure how systematic and structured he was in his approach, but in the end of the day he came across to Spaniards as a brilliant goalkeeper, with a human touch (reflected when he gave a call to Xavi from Barcelona to end up a club discussion) and passion for what he did and achieved (just recall what happened with Sara Carbonero 4 years ago upon winning the Soccer Wordlcup).

iker casillas

Moreover, he has managed relatively well his presence in Social Media, where we can find him in Twitter, Facebook and even Instagram, and has actually got really good PR thanks to some of his prizes, such as the one granted by the UNPD:  Goodwill Ambassador for the Millennium Development Goals.

What came out of it? Casillas managed to create a pretty good Personal Brand around himself, as it was reflected in the research by Personality Media, and actually some advertisting contracts with well-known companies such as Liga BBVA and Procter & Gamble.

iker champu

So far so good, till recently… The misstep came two weeks ago when he published a picture of his new-born baby, one “follower” attacked the baby (he basically said that he wished the baby would drown) and Casillas replied with all kind swearing and curse words…

comentario-iker

Had Casillas the right to response back like that? Yes, of course. Was Casillas right when responding like that? Absolutely not. Casillas needs to understand that even if he has the right to do so, he has created a Personal Brand, needs to protect it, take good care about what he does and does not say in public and specially take care of Media and Digital Media. For whatever he says, specially if it is a misstep, is going to be viral and promoted all around the Globe…

 

LEBRON GOES BACK HOME

The story of Lebron is somewhat similar to the one of Iker Casillas in a bigger scale. His Personal Branding started when he was only 17 and made it in the cover of Sports Illustrated: The Chosen one was born.

lebron the chosen one

Number 1 of the NBA draft in 2003, he was really up to the expectations he raised and managed to beat quite a few records during his 7 years in the Cavs, with only something missing: An NBA Championship. In 2010, he became an unrestricted agent and had to decide whether to keep on playing in Cleveland or moving somewhere else… Everybody was awaiting and he finally made his move… A move that he announced in an ESPN TV Program (The Decision)…

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Did he have the right to look for another Team where to win the NBA Championship? Of course. Did he mange it properly from a communication perspective? Definitively not. It was considered a brutal communication misstep, an arrogant move that made him a public enemy in Cleveland and in the minds of big chunk of NBA followers (myself included).

4 years later, Lebron was facing the same situation again. He had spent 4 years with the Heats, won 2 NBA Championships, had the right to choose his team again and got everybody was awaiting his decision. And today, he announced his decision and, in contrast to what happened before, he communicated it smartly: He wrote a well-thought and respectful letter published by Sports Illustrated, where he exposes the reasons for “I´m coming back home”.

lebron coming home

The reactions are yet to come, but I can bet that his Personal Brand Image will be strongly reinforced for:

  • He has amended his previous mistakes.
  • He admits the communication mistakes he made in the past.
  • He comes across as a respectful and considerate person, that looks for something else.

SOME CLOSING THOUGHTS

  • Personal Branding has to do with who you are and specially with how you come across.
  • For the latter Media in a broad sense is critical and needs to be carefully thought and manged.
  • When being a well-known Personal Brand, you need to be mindful and aware that everything your claim is subject to be published, promoted and made viral. This works both for offline and online media.
  • Having said that, you need to define your values and positioning and stick to them, even if rational or irrational critics show up.
  • And last but not least, please consider a professional assessment for managing your Personal Brand. Brand Management well deserves some professional help.

personal branding

Look forward for your comments @ignaciogafo.

Reset!!!

Ignacio Gafo

21
Jun

Recently, we hosted at IE the training academy “New Venture Creation and Marketing in Health/Life Sciences”, as a part of European Commission program Health-2-Market. During this week-long intensive training program, researchers-entrepreneurs from all over Europe had the chance to develop in collaboration with IE faculty the marketing plans of their ventures.

What struck me the most during this academy is the following. All of the participants were extremely motivated and knowledgeable about how their business ideas (products, services, or complete solutions) could be used. Each of them could talk for hours (literally) on how great and useful their business idea was… However, almost nobody could (at least at the beginning) adopt the view of their potential customers’ regarding their business. What would be the core benefit, for them?

In marketing jargon, they were focusing on their actual, and not on their core product. They were focusing on what their customer would pay for, and not why they would pay for it. For example, participants thought that they were providing “easy to use and technologically advanced medical devices” instead of “time, flexibility, and accuracy of results” to the doctors. “An integrated patient monitoring system” instead of “Cost reduction” for the hospitals. And, finally, “an easier and less intrusive way of heart-surgery”, instead of “more saved lives”.

Why may this be happening? Well, most entrepreneurship profs argue (rightly) that one of the keys to entrepreneurial success is passion for your business. They frequently use the metaphor that entrepreneurs must see their business as their child. Here, I believe, is the problem. It is extremely difficult for parents to stop admiring how great their child is, and start thinking how their child can be helpful to other people, the society, etc. Just as many parents believe that the society should be full of admiration for their children, many entrepreneurs believe that their business is so great, that the market and the customers should automatically appreciate them.

We have, thus, the following paradox: The very same passion that is necessary for entrepreneurial success, is preventing entrepreneurs from being customer focused, inhibiting thus entrepreneurial success at the same time. Maybe, then, the real key is to be able to manage your passion in such a way that keeps entrepreneurs motivated, but at the same time does not switch their focus away from customers’ needs.

 

More about Health2market e-training: http://elearning.health2market.eu/
More about Health2market: http://www.health2market.eu/

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

22
Mar

When faced with a bad event, most humans have the tendency to look for a “bright side”. This tendency has been captured by popular idioms in many languages, such as “Να χρυσώσει το χάπι” (“to coat the pill with gold”) and “Ουδέν κακόν αμιγές καλού” (“There is nothing bad without a bit of good in it”) in Greek, or “every cloud has a silver lining” in English.

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But what is a “silver lining” in economics? The answer comes from important research published in Marketing Science by Richard H. Thaler (University of Chicago; 1985, 2008). Thaler (among many other behavioral economists) argues that every financial transaction is mentally categorized as either a “gain” or a “loss”, relative to a reference point (usually the status quo). In addition, the perceived value of money is very different depending on how it relates to the reference point. Put simply, not all money is equal. Although an amount of money (let’s say 500 euros) can  buy the exact same things regardless where it comes from, its value for people can vary dramatically. One such variation is the “silver lining” principle. Let me explain this with an example.

Over the past (let’s say 3) years, Greece is experiencing the biggest post-second world war economic crisis. Many Greek citizens have lost large parts of their income, and the amount of this loss is for many something like 500 euros / month. For 3 years, this is a 3 x 12 x 500 = 18 000 euros. Now, the Greek economy seems to be slowly recovering. The Greek Prime minister just announced that Greece had surplus, 500 million of which will be distributed to about a million needy Greek citizens (see here). That is 500 / citizen, on average.

 

 

There are two possible ways to frame this 500. The first, is to “integrate” it in the previous loss: The prime minister, in this case, would say: “From the surplus, we will reduce the loss that the neediest Greek citizens had over the last 3 years from 18000 to 17500”.

Instead, he chose to say, more or less: “From the surplus, we will give to the neediest Greek citizens 500 euros each”. Which one sounds better? Clearly the second. Reducing the huge loss of 18000 by 500, would not make anyone any happier. They would still be losing 17500, roughly equal to 18000. Instead, the 500 windfall gain is presented in isolation from the disproportionately larger loss. Now, everyone is happy to have gained suddenly 500 euros; That is a silver lining.

In general, although traditional economics would say that X euros is always X euros, people do not understand money this way. They seem to be considering mostly “what difference does this amount make?”. For example, very small amounts of money may make a difference in how people pursue their financial goals (see here: http://marketing.blogs.ie.edu/archives/2013/07/improving-versus-maintaining-which-one-is-harder.php*). Or, as the “silver lining” principle suggests, when people face a big loss and a disproportionately smaller gain, combining the two into a slightly smaller loss would not make much difference. In these cases, people will “like” the same amount of money more, if they were treated as gains (i.e., gain 500) than if they are treated as “loss reductions” (i.e., limit a 18000 loss by 500)….and politicians seem to know that J.

 

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

 

*The Research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions ) of the European Union´s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement No. 298420.

11
Jan

Hello again everyone,

It is a great pleasure for the IE team involved at the Health2Market initiative to announce that the Health2Market Seminar: “Cutting Edge Decision Making Tools for Entrepreneurs”, will be hosted at IE Business School / IE University on March 3rd 2014. This Seminar will be delivered by professor Dilney Gonçalves.

But why is this seminar important? Well, managing a business at its core involves making good decisions. While most entrepreneurs will seek training in techniques in specific functions of the business like finance, marketing, and accounting, few are trained in decision-making. While it is important to understand the techniques involved in running the business, it is just as important to be a good decision maker. This seminar will provide participants with the necessary knowledge and skills to structure a decision problem, generate options, and select the best alternative in a consistent and unbiased way, enabling them to make the best possible decisions in their business ventures.

The seminar will be useful for everyone who is involved with health-sciences related businesses. So if you (or anyone you know) fits this profile, please do register!

 

REGISTER NOW: http://www.health2market.eu/seminar/2/registration

Registration is Required! Registration Deadline: February 7th, 2014

Participation is free of charge!!!

In addition, Health2Market offers FREE OF CHARGE full e-training courses. The courses range from the basics of marketing strategy to tips on how to attract partners to full-scale business planning and will help you understand the dynamics of the market and how to pursue business venture. Whether you already have some experience in the business world, or even if you have never left the science lab, the courses are designed to be easily understood by anyone.

 

More about the Health2Market Seminar: “Cutting Edge Decision Making Tools for Entrepreneurs”: http://www.health2market.eu/seminar/2
More about Health2market e-training: http://elearning.health2market.eu/

More about Health2market: http://www.health2market.eu/

 

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

4
Jan

New Year’s Resolutions. Why people fail?

Written on January 4, 2014 by Antonios Stamatogiannakis in ADVERTISING, Research in practice, Servicios

Hello again,

first of all let me wish a very happy new year to everyone!!

These days, it is common for many people to set resolutions for the new year. Those are commonly things that they want to achieve or do in order to improve their lives. This trend is so important, that the US government has devoted a special webpage to it: http://www.usa.gov/Citizen/Topics/New-Years-Resolutions.shtml.

Many of these resolutions focus on a better and more healthy lifestyle. Consumers typically aim, for instance, to exercise regularly. This exercising can take the form of either a daily workout routine ( X minutes per day) or a weekly schedule (e.g., 3 times per week). Many marketeers that work on domains that are related to these longer-term goals capitalize on the way that consumers consider them, promoting in their offerings exactly that: The benefits of a standard workout schedule (I am sure you have seen may ads like the following in the past).

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Yet, despite the efforts of governments, marketeers, and consumers themselves, long-term goals, such as new year’s resolutions, often are not achieved… Why may that be the case? Are people so bad at sticking to their goals?

resolutions pic

Recent research by a Cornell university psychologist (Dunning 2007), gives an answer to this question. Dunning argues that people are not that bad in pursuing their goals, but rather they are not very good when setting a goal, in the sense that they do not account for all the information they may have available. For example, when making these resolutions, people often fail to consider that the reason they did not work out as much as they wanted till now, is not that they did not have exercising equipment or a gym membership, but that they lacked the time or the motivation to exercise; It is very hard to find time to exercise, if one’s day is full with other obligations (e.g., career, family, commuting, etc.). Put simply, the day will always have 24 hours, no matter if one owns a gym membership or not!

So, the next time you fail in sticking to a plan of yours, instead of blaming yourself for being lazy, consider whether the plan was feasible to start with.

 

Having said that, I wish you never face such a situation during 2014!

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

 

 

30
Nov

Big Asian countries, such as China and India, are attracting the attention of companies in a variety of industries. Typically, two kinds of business opportunities are being pursued in these countries. First, many companies (e.g., IBM, Adidas, P&G, etc. – the list is really endless) transfer there some or all of their operations simply to benefit from lower production costs. Second, as the residents of these two countries represent roughly 50% of the total planet population, many companies are entering these markets  in attempt to grow their consumer base. From financial services to pharma, there seems to be something for every business domain.

As smart and profitable as the above practices may be, they are still a bit shallow (or shortsighted as a McKinsey article argues). A closer look reveals an important 3rd business opportunity; The tremendous cultural heritage of both India and China can provide excellent business prospects for companies who wish to be a bit more adventurous and seize opportunities as they arise.

But who would be the customers for such “culturally loaded” products? Well, first, an important part of Europeans and Americans find Asia as an exotic place, and they could welcome some of this “exotic-ness” to their lives. This is evident from both hard-numbers (Indian exports to USA alone are worth about USD 40 Billion) and softer consumer observation perspectives (e.g., influences of a recent Jean Paul Gaultiers collection).

But that is not all. With the modernization of the economies, many multinational firms now have significant offices in India and/or China. The executives of these companies, can be either locals, who have climbed up all the way to the corporate ladder, or expats, who were brought in by their companies in order to bring to these new markets their expertise. Both these types of people are interesting niche markets. The first, living and working in a westernized environment, may feel a little disconnected from their cultural origins. The second, living and working in a far away country, may try hard to “blend it”. No matter if their initial motive, is connecting to the past, blending in, or simply finding signature corporate gifts for their companies, they are very likely to seek for products that carry some cultural meaning of the country they live in. These products, then, could be used either by the executives themselves, or as corporate gifts of the companies they work for, which perhaps also want to communicate “original local identity”

Elements is a company that tries to seize this opportunity. The idea behind Elements was born by a team in which two IE alumni, Aman Goel and Gustavo Salinas, belong. Elements presents a unique approach to marketing hand-made Indian handicrafts, trying to connect rural Indian artisans and the culture their crafts carry, with the mainstream markets.

Aman and Gustavo explained to me the idea in greater detail.

“Indian handicrafts have been appreciated in India and abroad for a long time and already claim a market size of over USD 5 Billion. However, Elements believes, that the potential market for Indian handicrafts is much bigger. Indian artisans, for centuries, have been making the same products with same designs. So, while the world has become more modern and fast paced, Indian handicrafts have not evolved to suit the tastes of modern customers. Especially for the corporate clients, the gifts are seen as a medium building relationships with clients and employees. Therefore, the gifts not only require to communicate the company’s philosophy but also be unique. However, the corporate gifting industry in India is dominated by small regional traders who mostly import gift items from China leaving minimal scope for customization. This is where Elements brings in its expertise to adapt and contemporize traditional designs that are tailor made for each company and that carry the story of arts and artisans who have made the product. The enclosed image shows a business card holder developed by Elements using traditional Tarkashi art (metal wire inlay in wood), which has traditionally been used in making festive boxes.

El_Card holder

 

 

El_Logo

 

 

 

 

 

 

Furthermore, Elements also works closely with the artisans, in order to guarantee authenticity and reliable delivery of the crafts. If needed, it provides the artisans with tools and raw material to improve their production efficiency while reducing their financial burden. In addition, close cooperation helps building strong relationships and allows passing to the artisans maximum benefits from a sale. The video that follows is indicative of this close relationship.”

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Overall, though still in early stages, Elements shows that countries like India and China offer interesting market opportunities that do not necessarily rely on cheaper cost of production, but rather build on the value that products from these countries can deliver.

Do you think of any other similar business opportunities?

You can read more about Elements at:

Website: www.esbv.org

Facebook: www.facebook.com/elementsmart

Blog: www.elementsmart.tumblr.com

 

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

 

16
Nov
In a previous post (see here), I had introduced to you Health2Market; a 3-year long project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission, aiming to provide Health researchers with the necessary business knowledge and skills for more viable Intellectual Property Rights management as well as market exploitation of their results through setting up of new business ventures in health/life science sectors .
I was recently at the pilot academy of H2M, and the case of some researchers-entrepreneurs caught my attention. Why? In marketing, we expect a company to be profitable by meeting the needs of its customers… In some complicated business settings though, it is hard to identify who your customer is!!
I will try to describe what I mean as accurately as possible, given that I am not a doctor. The researchers have developed a specific type of “coating” that could be applied on artificial bone implants. This coating greatly reduced the probability that the implant would be rejected by the patient’s body after the surgery. So, it sounded like a great product! It could reduce the risks of further surgery for a patient, relieve their families from extra anxiety, reduce the operational costs of hospitals, free up some time for doctors, increase the profitability of private health insurance, increase the effectiveness of public health insurance, and so on. But who are the real customers here? A closer look shows that this is not an easy question to answer!
  • The patients? Well, sure they are the main beneficiaries… But in most cases they will be minimally involved in paying for the extra price of a coated implant. In addition, they will probably not be involved at all in the implant choice process. They will do whatever the doctors suggest, and the hospital has available.
  • The patients’ families? Likewise, the benefits for them are clear too. But their involvement in paying the costs and deciding will be very little.
  • The hospitals? Of course, the hospitals are the ones that will have to order the coated implants. But are they the customers? To start with, they are not paying – the patients and the insurance pay. In addition, there is a good chance that the person who makes the orders for the implants has little understanding of the coating advantages, and is mostly interested in keeping costs low, and existing suppliers happy. Finally, coated implants reduce the number of needed surgeries. So they are bad for the hospital’s business! Thus, in extreme and, perhaps, unethical cases, for-profit hospitals might actually oppose this innovation.
  • The doctors? They may have some role in deciding what implants to use. They see the benefits for their patients, and for themselves (less surgeries). But this role may be limited. In addition, they are not the ones who pay.
  • The implant manufacturers? They are the ones who will initially pay for the coating, and then sell the coated implants to the hospitals for higher prices. But there is NO WAY to convince them, unless the hospitals are convinced to try the coated implants.
  • The (public or private) insurance? They are paying for great part of the additional surgeries needed…but they do not decide on what implants will be used!

To conclude, even seemingly easy marketing questions – like who your customer is – are sometimes very tough to answer. In such cases, knowing your market and marketing your product to all interested parties (by “selling” different each benefits to each), can be key. This is the use of a proper “market analysis” – known to marketing core course students as “the 5 Cs” (company, customer, competition, collaborators, context)

By the way, if you are (or know someone who is) considering to start a health-research based business, stay tuned:

http://www.health2market.eu/

 

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

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