Posts Tagged ‘International Marketing#8217;


The summer is almost over, and in this  post I would like to discuss issues related with the “King” of the summer industries – tourism. The question was born in my head during my vacations at my hometown, in Crete. Specifically, the official numbers for Greece – and Crete in particular – showed an increase in the number of tourists in relation to 2013 (which was also a good year). In addition, I could personally observe that there was a big number of tourists strolling on the streets. Nevertheless, the owners of tourism related businesses (e.g., small hotels, gift shops, etc.) were complaining that their business was down. And a quick look inside these businesses confirmed their view: Most shops and small hotels were not nearly as busy as last year.

So how could both of these opposing facts be true? I believe it is because of the existence of two pretty well-defined segments of tourists. The first segment, let’s call them “the relaxers” primarily care about resting and relaxing. What they want from their vacation is as few hustle as possible, even if that means missing out on a few interesting stuff. Naturally, they prefer a vacation package that they book from a travel agent. This includes a big hotel (usually part of a chain), which offers them everything: 3 meals, shops, cafes, bars, close access to a nice beach. They typically leave their hotel only for pre-scheduled excursions either to the closest town, or to a few main attractions.

The second segment, let’s call them “the explorers” primarily care about exploring and getting to know the place they visit. What they want from their vacation is new experiences, and are willing to exert more effort in discovering the “secrets” of the place they are visiting. They usually stay at small hotels, but they spend very little time there. On the contrary, they leave their hotel early in the morning, and it is not unusual for them to eat, shop, have drinks, etc. at a different place each day – or even during the same day. They plan most details of their trip on their own, perhaps with the help of friends and “experts” (e.g., tripadvisor).

So, what seems to have happened in Crete this summer, is that many tourists came (thus, the increase in the gross numbers), but most of them were “relaxers”, and few of them were “explorers” (thus, the decrease in tourism revenues for small tourism related businesses).

Now, is this a problem? I believe it is. In an uncertain industry, such as tourism, it is risky to concentrate only on one market segment. For instance, relaxers would go to any place that their travel agent sends them, as long as they can relax. But travel agents operate based on profit, so they would have no problem to send their clients to other locations, as long as they get a better price. So low prices (at the package level) are critically important for that segment, and can result in big changes in demand from year to year.

I could mention several examples, but perhaps the most convincing is the following. The Greek Ministry of Tourism, seems to want to target both the relaxers and the explorers. For instance, take a look at the following ad – it seems to be targeting for the most part the “explorers”. So are many of the videos of the official agency for tourism in Greece.

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In summary, it looks that the good results in terms of “sales” (i.e., gross tourism numbers) are not the result of a careful marketing strategy building on the competitive advantages of the brand “Greece”, but a result of competitive pricing (which, may be a result of the ongoing economic crisis in Greece). If that is the case, the positive results of Greek tourism during the last couple of years are not likely to be sustainable.  They will be over together the price advantage, largely stemming from the crisis. In order to ensure long-lasting market growth,   an aligned marketing strategy is necessary.

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu



Should you bet on Sustainability? Does it make business and financial sense to go for a green positioning? What can companies and brand expect for these sort of approaches?


I could actually write a book about these questions, but would rather keep it simple today. According to a research from Havas Media Group, Brands must be meaningful. In the sense that they need to embrace values that resonate with customers. If not, you risk becoming part of the mainstream (7 out of 10 brands according to this research) and become irrelevant to your target group… I.e. your customer would not care at all if your brand disappeared…

Meaningul Brands

Bearing this is in mind, there are quite a few possible approaches here. You can create a Corporate Brand Identity around sustainability like the one of Unilever, or you could keep it simple and go step by step. And, if you opt for the latter, then the approach would be simple: Take one value that resonates with your customers and build upon it.

Meaningul Brands Info

One of the possible values is everything related to playing it Green, to positioning yourself as an Environmentally Friendly Company, who cares about Nature and the Ecosystem. And one example of this would be what not a company but an Industry has actually done: The Green approach of the Hotel Chains.

You know what I am speaking about, but let me share one recent example I got so that we are all in the same page. I just went to Penn State University for a Symposium on Digital Learning. The event took place in an Event Centre where everybody was hosted. And of course, when in the room, you could find it with signs that were basically telling something like this:

“If you want your towels to be replaced, please leave them on the floor….

If you want your bed sheets not to be changed, please leave this sign on your bed…

When deciding, please consider the amount of resources that are thrown away and the impact is has on Nature…

We are fully committed Hotel with Sustainability and appreciate your support…”

towel save planet

The result?

Firstly, most customers decide to play it green.

Secondly, the Hotel Chain makes a good impact on the brand positioning, as long as customers end up perceiving the brand as committed with sustainability.

And lastly, the Hotel Chain actually saves a lot of money for not having to wash and replace thousands of towels and bed sheets…

Food for thought

Quite simple, isn´t it? But it works and delivers quite good results. So bear in mind two things from here:

  • Brands needs to resonate with customer values, they need to resonate and engage.
  • The latter does not necessarily imply ad multimillion investment. It could be as simple as taking one value and get your message across.

I look for your comments @ignaciogafo


Ignacio Gafo



Today I wanted to paraphrase a well-known business article (It is the Distribution, stupid!) to showcase the importance of managing Media properly when building the Personal Brand Identity. And for doing so we have two perfect examples that reflect what should be and should not be done.

lebron james


Iker Casillas has managed its Personal Branding relatively well for many years. I am not sure how systematic and structured he was in his approach, but in the end of the day he came across to Spaniards as a brilliant goalkeeper, with a human touch (reflected when he gave a call to Xavi from Barcelona to end up a club discussion) and passion for what he did and achieved (just recall what happened with Sara Carbonero 4 years ago upon winning the Soccer Wordlcup).

iker casillas

Moreover, he has managed relatively well his presence in Social Media, where we can find him in Twitter, Facebook and even Instagram, and has actually got really good PR thanks to some of his prizes, such as the one granted by the UNPD:  Goodwill Ambassador for the Millennium Development Goals.

What came out of it? Casillas managed to create a pretty good Personal Brand around himself, as it was reflected in the research by Personality Media, and actually some advertisting contracts with well-known companies such as Liga BBVA and Procter & Gamble.

iker champu

So far so good, till recently… The misstep came two weeks ago when he published a picture of his new-born baby, one “follower” attacked the baby (he basically said that he wished the baby would drown) and Casillas replied with all kind swearing and curse words…


Had Casillas the right to response back like that? Yes, of course. Was Casillas right when responding like that? Absolutely not. Casillas needs to understand that even if he has the right to do so, he has created a Personal Brand, needs to protect it, take good care about what he does and does not say in public and specially take care of Media and Digital Media. For whatever he says, specially if it is a misstep, is going to be viral and promoted all around the Globe…



The story of Lebron is somewhat similar to the one of Iker Casillas in a bigger scale. His Personal Branding started when he was only 17 and made it in the cover of Sports Illustrated: The Chosen one was born.

lebron the chosen one

Number 1 of the NBA draft in 2003, he was really up to the expectations he raised and managed to beat quite a few records during his 7 years in the Cavs, with only something missing: An NBA Championship. In 2010, he became an unrestricted agent and had to decide whether to keep on playing in Cleveland or moving somewhere else… Everybody was awaiting and he finally made his move… A move that he announced in an ESPN TV Program (The Decision)…

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Did he have the right to look for another Team where to win the NBA Championship? Of course. Did he mange it properly from a communication perspective? Definitively not. It was considered a brutal communication misstep, an arrogant move that made him a public enemy in Cleveland and in the minds of big chunk of NBA followers (myself included).

4 years later, Lebron was facing the same situation again. He had spent 4 years with the Heats, won 2 NBA Championships, had the right to choose his team again and got everybody was awaiting his decision. And today, he announced his decision and, in contrast to what happened before, he communicated it smartly: He wrote a well-thought and respectful letter published by Sports Illustrated, where he exposes the reasons for “I´m coming back home”.

lebron coming home

The reactions are yet to come, but I can bet that his Personal Brand Image will be strongly reinforced for:

  • He has amended his previous mistakes.
  • He admits the communication mistakes he made in the past.
  • He comes across as a respectful and considerate person, that looks for something else.


  • Personal Branding has to do with who you are and specially with how you come across.
  • For the latter Media in a broad sense is critical and needs to be carefully thought and manged.
  • When being a well-known Personal Brand, you need to be mindful and aware that everything your claim is subject to be published, promoted and made viral. This works both for offline and online media.
  • Having said that, you need to define your values and positioning and stick to them, even if rational or irrational critics show up.
  • And last but not least, please consider a professional assessment for managing your Personal Brand. Brand Management well deserves some professional help.

personal branding

Look forward for your comments @ignaciogafo.


Ignacio Gafo


Big Asian countries, such as China and India, are attracting the attention of companies in a variety of industries. Typically, two kinds of business opportunities are being pursued in these countries. First, many companies (e.g., IBM, Adidas, P&G, etc. – the list is really endless) transfer there some or all of their operations simply to benefit from lower production costs. Second, as the residents of these two countries represent roughly 50% of the total planet population, many companies are entering these markets  in attempt to grow their consumer base. From financial services to pharma, there seems to be something for every business domain.

As smart and profitable as the above practices may be, they are still a bit shallow (or shortsighted as a McKinsey article argues). A closer look reveals an important 3rd business opportunity; The tremendous cultural heritage of both India and China can provide excellent business prospects for companies who wish to be a bit more adventurous and seize opportunities as they arise.

But who would be the customers for such “culturally loaded” products? Well, first, an important part of Europeans and Americans find Asia as an exotic place, and they could welcome some of this “exotic-ness” to their lives. This is evident from both hard-numbers (Indian exports to USA alone are worth about USD 40 Billion) and softer consumer observation perspectives (e.g., influences of a recent Jean Paul Gaultiers collection).

But that is not all. With the modernization of the economies, many multinational firms now have significant offices in India and/or China. The executives of these companies, can be either locals, who have climbed up all the way to the corporate ladder, or expats, who were brought in by their companies in order to bring to these new markets their expertise. Both these types of people are interesting niche markets. The first, living and working in a westernized environment, may feel a little disconnected from their cultural origins. The second, living and working in a far away country, may try hard to “blend it”. No matter if their initial motive, is connecting to the past, blending in, or simply finding signature corporate gifts for their companies, they are very likely to seek for products that carry some cultural meaning of the country they live in. These products, then, could be used either by the executives themselves, or as corporate gifts of the companies they work for, which perhaps also want to communicate “original local identity”

Elements is a company that tries to seize this opportunity. The idea behind Elements was born by a team in which two IE alumni, Aman Goel and Gustavo Salinas, belong. Elements presents a unique approach to marketing hand-made Indian handicrafts, trying to connect rural Indian artisans and the culture their crafts carry, with the mainstream markets.

Aman and Gustavo explained to me the idea in greater detail.

“Indian handicrafts have been appreciated in India and abroad for a long time and already claim a market size of over USD 5 Billion. However, Elements believes, that the potential market for Indian handicrafts is much bigger. Indian artisans, for centuries, have been making the same products with same designs. So, while the world has become more modern and fast paced, Indian handicrafts have not evolved to suit the tastes of modern customers. Especially for the corporate clients, the gifts are seen as a medium building relationships with clients and employees. Therefore, the gifts not only require to communicate the company’s philosophy but also be unique. However, the corporate gifting industry in India is dominated by small regional traders who mostly import gift items from China leaving minimal scope for customization. This is where Elements brings in its expertise to adapt and contemporize traditional designs that are tailor made for each company and that carry the story of arts and artisans who have made the product. The enclosed image shows a business card holder developed by Elements using traditional Tarkashi art (metal wire inlay in wood), which has traditionally been used in making festive boxes.

El_Card holder










Furthermore, Elements also works closely with the artisans, in order to guarantee authenticity and reliable delivery of the crafts. If needed, it provides the artisans with tools and raw material to improve their production efficiency while reducing their financial burden. In addition, close cooperation helps building strong relationships and allows passing to the artisans maximum benefits from a sale. The video that follows is indicative of this close relationship.”

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Overall, though still in early stages, Elements shows that countries like India and China offer interesting market opportunities that do not necessarily rely on cheaper cost of production, but rather build on the value that products from these countries can deliver.

Do you think of any other similar business opportunities?

You can read more about Elements at:





Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu



Young males, living in big cities…

Written on August 10, 2013 by Antonios Stamatogiannakis in ADVERTISING, International Marketing

In several of my classes, this is how students (especially those with little marketing training) describe market segments for a product or service; Gender, age (or age range), and geographical location. Then the discussion goes on with me explaining that such description is inadequate, or even misleading, and that a more appropriate description should include “psychographic” and/ or “behavioral” elements as well. At this point, I sense several students wondering: “What does this mean?” “What is psychographic, anyway?” “What is the use of this, besides learning more fancy marketing buzzwords?”

Well, here is an excellent example from McDonald’s advertisements in China that shows why. The target segment of McDonald’s is exactly: “young males, living in big cities”. These are the people who are more likely to opt for fast food versus other, more expensive or time-consuming eating options. This targeting was reflected in a controversial campaign that provided discounts to male customers only.

When however MacDonald’s had to decide on the advertising, they realized that “young males, living in big cities” see themselves differently, and aspire for very different things depending on the big city that they live in. Thus, in their “Manly Man” campaign, McDonald’s created different ads for different cities, trying to appeal to characteristics of the target segment deeper than “gender, age, location.” Some of these characteristics were very common among young males (e.g., interest in females), but others were tailored to the specific image of a “Manly Man” in different regions of China.
Young males living in Shenzhen, the first “special economic zone” in China, saw an advertisement stressing the importance of career in a man’s life:

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Young males living in Shanghai, where a man must take good care of his wife and home, saw an advertisement stressing these qualities:

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And young males living in Beijing, saw an advertisement stressing that real men are tough and decisive:

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Interestingly, regardless of whether the focus is on career achievement, care-taking, or toughness, the slogan is always the same: “Manly Man”. Thus, the different foci of the ads do not merely reflect differences in how desirable some traits are in different parts of China. Rather, they show that these characteristics (successful, care-taker, tough) define what a “manly man” is in each of these cities, at a deeper “psychographic” and “behavioral” level.


Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University


Congratulatory messages are flooding in from around the world to mark the birth of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge’s son, the third in line to the throne.

Which is a unique occasion for the BRANDS to join the congratulation showing off how creative they can be + engage with their customers.

I am enclosing a sample of the Advertising carried out. I look forward knowing your favourite one.



royal george j&j




 royal george coke



royal george oreo



Mini Royalty has arrived video



royal george magnum




royal george charmin 



royal george delta 



royal george granola 



royal george hostess snacks 



royal george hMumm



 royal george smurfs



royal george sb



Look forward for your comments here or @ignaciogafo.


Ignacio Gafo


Oreo reinventa la Superbowl

Written on February 4, 2013 by Ignacio Gafo in ADVERTISING, Branding, E-MARKETING, International Marketing

¿Cuál ha sido el mejor anuncio de la Superbowl?

Siento adelantarme a mi amigo Jesús Rebollo, pero no puedo dejar de escribir sobre los anuncios que se lanzaron ayer y preguntaros cuál ha sido el mejor.

Seguro que al igual que yo, habréis recibido un buen número de correos y artículos, en el que distintos medios y personas dan su opinión. Que si cuál ha sido el más entretenido, el más ingenioso, el más notorio, el más pobre, etc.

De lo que había visto, claramente me quedaba con el de Audi. Me parecía ingenioso, tenía llegada al público objetivo y encima trasmitía muy bien los valores de marca…

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Algo que no ha conseguido este año Bud, que para mí ha sido una gran decepción. Porque aunque como dice el New York Times es ciertamente entrañable, creo que la imagen que transmiten es muy soft y muy alejada de lo que uno espera de esta marca…

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Como os decía, me quedaba con Audi, hasta que llegó a mis manos un artículo de Sandro Pozzi, en el que se explicaba la GENIALIDAD (con mayúsculas) de Oreo. Que, aprovechando un apagón de 34 minutos en la final, colgó en Twitter el anuncio que teneís debajo:

Como os podéis imaginar, se ha llevado una de las mejores valoraciones el día después, además un sinfin de RT (14,000 RT el primer minuto). Lo que no es para menos pues evidencia varias cosas:

  • La importancia del momento. Las marcas tienen que estar “vivas” y conectar a tiempo real con los consumidores.
  • La importancia del marketing digital. Del Social Media en particular, que puede llevar a impactos superiores a los que consiguen las marcas invirtiendo muchos muchos millones (8 millones de US$ de media en la Superbowl).
  • La importancia de la creatividad. Puede que cambien los formatos; puede que cambie el consumidor; pero la capacidad de crear e innovar siempre estará ahí.
  • La importancia de la simplicidad. Menos es ciertamente más.


Espero vuestros comentarios e impresiones en @ignacio gafo y en @ieweblog.



Ignacio Gafo


PS1: Alguno me dirá que el apagón estaba programado. Con todo lo que está ocurriendo hoy, ya me creo que cualquier cosa. Pero esto rozaría lo inconcebible.

PS2: Gracias a mis alumnos del GMBABL y en especial a Adolfo, por despertarme la gusanillo y provocar este post.


It was a question of time before Starbucks enteered in to the singke-serve expresso machine business with its own end-to-end ecosystem.

The launch took place in the US last October, with a range of Verismo coffee machines and  different options plastic capsules filled with pre-ground coffee or powdered milk. It was not innovative at all, there were quite a few options avaialable at a market clearly dominated by Nestle´s Nespresso and Green Mountain’s Keurig. However, the chance to enter a market worth 8 billion US$ globally, that was expected to grow by 147% in 2012, seemed to convince Starbucks to make the bet.

Starbucks opted at the launch for a premium pricing ($200 and above for the coffee machines and $1 for the coffee capsule) over Nespresso ($150 and above for the machines and $0,75 the capsules), assuming that its Brand Loyalty and Preference would make the difference.

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Morevoer, it advertised heavily the product through Social Media and make the product available for purchase at Starbucks online store, its 4300 american stores stores and in a selection specialty stores.

Fiscal Q1 sales results have gone up to 150,000 machines according to the company, and Howard Schultz reminds me to Steve Jobs when commenting on the I-Pad first sales analysis:

“We remain committed to attaining leadership in the single-serve category, and I can tell you today that with Verismo we are in the nascent stage of building a multi-billion dollar platform for Starbucks over the long term,” said Schultz. “And we are in it for the long term.”


“I think it’s very important that you all understand that we are deeply, deeply committed to becoming the leader in this space domestically and internationally,” Schultz told the analysts.


“Our commitment, our interest, our motivation to build on single-serve and build on Verismo is 100 percent and we are going to maintain a high level of commitment and investment in this, where we are going to be the global leader,” he continued.


No question from my side about the Company commitment to this new business: The CEO and the company is fully committed and have actually promised new features, designs and alternatives already placed in the Verismo Roadmap for the next years.

But, at the same time, some “What if” questions show up in my mind:

- What if cannibalization from the Stores take place?

- What if after some early success coming from Starbucks fans, the sales drop?

- What if they are not able to cope with Nespresso´s brand equity and broader assortment of flavors in the mid and long term?

- What if it does not work when bringing the system out of US?

- What if the market matures at the time they are to compete?

- What if Sara Lee replicates what it did with Nespresso and launches capsules for Verismo as well?

I am a big marketing fan of Mr Schultz and believe he can make it happen again. However, the what if questions make me doubt whether Verismo creates or destroys value for Starbucks. At least for the time being…

I look forward for your comments and views @ignaciogafo / @ieweblog.


Ignacio Gafo


Retail banking has been severely hit by the crisis (for a related AT Kearney report click here: Naturally, banks operating in adverse environments might employ different approaches to reach consumers, compared to banks operating in healthier economies. Indeed, bank offerings differ across economies …but some of these differences are very subtle.

For instance, most banks that offer savings accounts require from consumers some sort of “maintenance”: The regular savings account of Barclays (UK-, offers higher interest rates if the balance of an account is maintained over a month. Similarly, Deutsche Bank (India) offers its Value-Plus savings account ( only if consumers maintain a minimum Average Quarterly Balance of Rs. 100,000 (1,420 euros).


Interestingly, the Greek Piraeus bank, operating in a country severely hit by the crisis, chooses a different approach. Its savings account “Αξίζει” (i.e., it’s worth it), provides higher interest rates if an account balance increases over a month, even if the increase is as small as 1 euro (

Even more interestingly, they “upgraded” this clause from the “small letters” to the basic selling point of the account! (Probably you do not speak Greek – but check seconds 34-40)

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Why did Piraeus Bank change the traditional approach of “balance maintenance” to “balance increase”? If anything, in today’s Greece it might be more difficult to increase your balance (even by 1 euro) than to maintain it.

My research* with professors Amitava Chattopadhyay (INSEAD, France & Singapore) and Dipankar Chakravarti (Johns Hopkins University, USA) provides a potential answer. In a series of studies we demonstrate that consumers think about the concepts of “increasing” versus “maintaining” very differently.

“Maintaining” evokes thoughts like “what factors might help or inhibit success in maintenance?” Naturally, when the economic environment is bad (e.g., Greece) such factors would lean towards the negative side, making the “maintain savings” task look a bit too difficult. On the contrary, “increasing” usually evokes thoughts like “what is the amount of the required increase?” By emphasizing that “one needs only 1 euro more to get a higher interest rate”, instead of simply requiring balance maintenance, Piraeus bank may be trying to prevent consumers from thinking about the negative economic environment, that would make any savings task look difficult, and its savings account unattractive.

To summarize, in times of economic recession, traditional marketing approaches (e.g., crafting customized bank offerings that best address the banking needs of well-defined segments) are necessary, but they may not be enough. They should be supplemented by consumer psychology insights. Simply giving the best offer may not be enough, if we do not know how consumers “read” this offer.

What are your thoughts on the above? Can you think of other similar approaches that may help consumer marketing in times of crisis?


Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

*The Research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions ) of the European Union´s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement No. 298420.


Cuando no todo sale bien

Written on November 8, 2012 by Jesús Rebollo in Branding

Esta semana he tenido una de mis mejores experiencias como profesor en el IE Business School dentro del electivo de Sports Marketing que estoy dando a los alumnos del IMBA. En mi última clase analizamos las claves de un caso práctico en el que todo salía mal. Ni había estrategia, ni había definición de público objetivo y tampoco una estructura pensada para lograr ninguna de sus metas. El resultado, como no podía ser menos, es un estrepitoso fracaso.

La clase fue tan interesante que me quedé pensando sobre algo de lo que casi nunca hablamos aquí: de las peores prácticas e iniciativas dentro del mundo del marketing. Y buscando en la web he encontrado algunas que quiero compartir con vosotros.

1.- Una de las más recientes ya fue abordada por nuestro compañero Nacho Gafo. El famoso caso de Loewe  y su campaña viral de pijos absurdos hablando de su relación con la marca merecen un espacio en este ranking. Algunas de los expertos en redes sociales y e-marketing con los que he hablado venden este concepto en base a la notoriedad que ha generado pero un análisis mínimamente más profundo nos hace pensar de otra forma: Los objetivos de cualquier acción de marketing que se realice deben, ante todo y sobre todo, NO perjudicar los valores esenciales de la marca. Y aquí las dudas son más que evidentes.

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2.- Me remonto muchos años atrás (1985) para ver cómo hasta los más grandes se equivocan… Y sino que se lo digan a Coca Cola. Seguro que todos lo habéis leído o escuchado. En ese momento, el gigante de la gaseosa lanzó el que debía ser su gran lanzamiento la “New Coke” que vendría a reemplazar a la tradicional Coke. El resultado fue un desastre. Su número de atención al cliente pasó de 400 llamadas a 1500 reclamaciones diarias y se recibieron hasta 400.000 cartas en la sede de Atlanta. A pesar de que después revertieron la situación, la sensación de sus clientes de que le estaban “traicionando” al cambiar la fórmula original hizo mover sus cimientos.

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3.- Gracias a las redes sociales, los grandes almacenes Kenneth Cole, cometieron un terrible error en la pasada primavera. Al tiempo que en el Norte de África se estaba desarrollando la Primavera Árabe (con todas sus consecuencias), los de KC lanzaron este mensaje en su cuenta de Twitter:











De nuevo. No nos pasemos de listos. No queramos ir dónde no nos llaman y no perdamos nunca el foco del valor real de nuestra marca.

Podríamos seguir buscando y encontrando malas prácticas que nos enseñen todo lo que no debemos hacer para intentar no caer en los errores e intentar asegurar que nuestras campañas cumplen con todos los puntos de control que debemos verificar para no perjudicar nuestra marca.

Espero vuestros comentarios aquí o en @ieweblog y @jesusrebollog

Feliz puente a todos,

PD. Thank you to all my students for inspire me on this post. Hope you’ll find it useful!

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