30
Sep

Consecuencias no intencionadas de M-Pesa

Written on September 30, 2013 by María López Escorial in Bottom of the Pyramid, Marketing Strategy

Pocas iniciativas en la base de la pirámide, además de microfinanzas, han tenido tanto éxito como M- Pesa, el servicio de dinero móvil de Safaricom (subsidiaria de Vodafone) en Kenya. En 3 años y medio después del lanzamiento 70% de los hogares usaban el servicio y lo que es más importante un 50% de la base de la pirámide.
M-Pesa terminó 2012 con más de 15 millones de clientes y gestionaba más transacciones a nivel nacional que Western Union internacionalmente.

En mis post anteriores hemos hablado de las dificultades de “marketear” productos en la base de la pirámide. Hoy me gustaría hablar de qué cosas hicieron bien.

Se ha escrito mucha literatura sobre M-Pesa, yo creo que llegando a un consenso sobre los factores de éxito:

1. M-Pesa lanzó un producto mucho mejor que la alternativa existente para una necesidad probada. Las remesas internas a zonas rurales se estaban realizando en su gran mayoría o en persona, con el coste de tiempo y dinero que supone o a través de los conductores de las líneas de autobús asumiendo un riesgo enorme de pérdida de la remesa. El servicio de M-Pesa es mucho más barato, inmediato fácil de usar y totalmente seguro.

internetbanking

2. Saraficom tenía un 70% de cuota del mercado de móviles con lo que las barreras de aceptación del producto (por la necesidad de cambio de móvil) era inexistentes para una gran parte de los clientes, así como el envío inmediato, lo que facilitó la adquisición de escala, tan importante en negocios en la BOP.
Además esta alta cuota tenía otras ventajas clave:
i. Acceso a una red de agentes muy desarrollada, con mucha capilaridad y que llevaba a los lugares más remotos
ii. Marca conocida y con buena reputación que transmite confianza, especialmente importante cuando estamos hablando de dinero

3. Excelente gestión, training, incentivos y control de la red de agentes que al final son la cara del servicio ante el cliente y la clave de la adopción

M-pesa agent
4. Alta presencia de tarjetas de identidad en Kenya, lo que permite que los procesos sean mucho más cortos y seguros.
5. Entorno regulatorio favorable que permitió no ser considerada como institución financiera con los que eso conlleva en cuanto a requisitos legales para Safaricom.

Los factores de éxito nos vuelven a hablar de elementos claves en la estrategia de marketing: necesidad del producto, bajas barreras de entrada, un modelo de distribución con alto alcance e incentivos correctos, y una marca reconocida y solvente.

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¿Cuanto de esto se puede replicar? Lo comentaré en mi siguiente post.

Pero me gustaría terminar con un artículo que me sorprendió sobre las “consecuencias no intencionadas de M-Pesa”. En el que se menciona como hay clientes que han dejado el servicio porque todo el mundo te pide dinero y “no tienes dónde esconderte”, regalar minutos de teléfono se ha convertido en una manera de ligar y las tensiones que conlleva el mandar dinero sin visitar a tus parientes tienen un coste muy alto para determinados segmentos de la población.

Incluso los mejores productos tienen consecuencias difíciles de identificar y reacciones de los consumidores a tener en cuenta. En algunas culturas o segmentos de clientes, puede ser lo suficientemente relevante como para condicionar el éxito del producto. De ahí la necesidad de hacer investigaciones de mercado de calidad. ¿Puede esto penalizar a M-Pesa?

usando el movil

¿Qué pensais?

Espero vuestros comentarios en el blog y en @marialescorial

28
Sep

Health2Market: From health research to healthy business

Written on September 28, 2013 by Antonios Stamatogiannakis in B2B Marketing, Biopharma, Innovation

Great amounts of resources are spent every year on health research. These resources serve one greater purpose: to improve individuals’ well-being. Unfortunately, however, much of the output of this research just gets stockpiled into scientific journals, without exploiting its full practical potential. A question then is, how could health researchers be motivated to actually push their inventions into real healthcare products, that will eventually enhance the welfare of individuals?

Health2Market, for which I am the scientific coordinator for IE, is an initiative trying to provide a solution to this problem. Health2Market is a 3-year long project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission. It aims at providing Health researchers with the necessary business knowledge and skills for more viable Intellectual Property Rights management as well as market exploitation of their results through setting up of new business ventures in health/life science sectors .

It gives great flexibility to the interested health researches by offering (free of charge) services ranging from e-learning, to face to face training, even to personalized coaching for the most promising cases.  The goal is to motivate them in order to transform the great research that they are already conducting to healthy businesses.

To conclude, just like it is not enough to have a great product to succeed in the marketplace, it is not enough to do great health research to improve individuals’ well-being. This research must find its way to the individuals who will benefit from it. This is, fundamentally, a question of doing business, a lot more than doing research.  In this vein, initiatives such as Health2Market hit the sweet spot: They try to equip health researchers with the tools they need to bring their inventions to life, and (why not?) bring life with their inventions.

By the way, if you are (or know someone who is) considering to start a health-research based business, stay tuned:

http://www.health2market.eu/

 

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

24
Sep

A recent study by Shikhar Ghosh, a senior lecturer at Harvard Business School, revealed that 75 percent of venture funded startups failed to return invested capital. The demands of unrealistically high-growth rates and quick returns have caused lots of sound businesses to boom-burst-and-sink quickly.

Turning a scientific breakthrough into a commercial success requires business capabilities.

The first problem is that bioentrepreneurs face different types of interlocutors and are not used to dealing with them. The interlocutors (stakeholders: investors, business angels, customers, etc…) need to be convinced, and the first challenge for a scientist is to forget traditional scientific doubt while not going too far the other way and claiming unrealistic expectations for their product.

bioentrepreneurs

Read more…

18
Sep

This post is extracted from a recent presentation which I made to scientists at CNIO (Spanish National Center for Investigation in Cancer), during a forum dedicated to entrepreneurship. I want to address the misconception that the creation of a new and innovative  drug is not, in and of itself, a guarantee that it will sell. As said by Peter Drucker “Innovation is the specific instrument of entrepreneurship. The act that endows resources with a new capacity to create wealth”.

Read more…

15
Sep

Desde el retail

Sea cual sea el texto que se lea sobre experiencia de compra del consumidor, es prácticamente seguro que entre los ejemplos ilustrativos que ese texto recoja aparecerá el nombre de Disney como una de las marcas que mejor la gestiona.

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Y parece natural partiendo de la base de que el origen de negocio y la imagen de Disney se centran en parques temáticos cuyo objetivo era hacer volar la imaginación de niños y adultos y vender fantasias.

En busca de un crecimiento relativamente fácil en ventas Disney empezó a abrir tiendas en los años 80, tiendas que a partir del año 2002 empiezan a ser gestionadas a través de acuerdos geográficos de licencia con otras empresas. El resultado fueron unas 300 puntos de venta en el mundo que con una política de precios altos y bajos costes operativos  intentaban rentabilizar el negocio a partir de la fuerte imagen que la marca aportaba.

entrada tiendaprincess_mirror_disney_store_0710

La siguiente fase arranca en el 2008. En ese año Disney inicia un proceso para retomar el control de su distribución detallista, recomprando los derechos a las empresas licenciatarias. Con el fin de relanzar las ventas y reforzar la imagen se cierran numerosas tiendas a la vez que se procede a la implantación de un programa de remodelación para todas las demás que con el referente de las tiendas de Apple (resultado de la toma de control de Disney por Pixar y Steve Jobs), tuviesen en la experiencia del cliente y la tecnología sus pilares fundamentales.  Teatralización de la tienda, participación del consumidor, marketing sensorial, accesibilidad a productos, tecnología…

Magic happens…

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“The Disney Stores play a critical role in how millions around the world experience our brand. The new store design allows kids and families to have a fun and immersive experience while shopping for their favorite Disney products.”. Bob Iger, Disney President and CEO

Se trata de tiendas que recogen los elementos clave de lo que se ha dado en llamar una experiencia “wow”, o sencillamente, una experiencia memorable para el comprador tanto en los elementos ejecucionales, como de imagen de marca, operacionales, de solución de problemas y compromiso con el cliente (“Discovering ‘WOW’ — A Study of Great Retail Shopping (http://www.verdegroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Discovering-WOW-June-2009.pdf)

La última fase en la estrategia multicanal de Disney tiene dos ejes de desarrollo.

Por una parte la expansión en la cobertura de mercados y la generación de tráfico de clientes por medio de acuerdos con la gran distribución, consistentes en la apertura de cornes o shop in shops, como el firmado el año pasado con la cadena J.C.Penney para abrir tiendas Disney de 100 m2 en 520 tiendas de la cadena.

El segundo eje es el refuerzo de la venta online, consistente en la remodelación del sitio web y la apertura a finales de los años 2000 de tiendas.com en Francia y Alemania para sumarse a las ya existentes en USA e UK (http://www.disney.co.uk/).

But magic…disappears

web

Es difícil imaginar una mayor desconexión entre la promesa de valor de la marca trasmitida por dos canales de distribución complementarios, como son tiendas propias y su sitio web. Porque al final se trata en la mayor parte de los casos de los mismos consumidores, en distintos momentos de compra o distintas fases de un mismo proceso. Los nuevos sitios web son sobre todo funcionales, operativos, centrados en producto y precio, excesivamente densificados, donde se hace extremadamente difícil una conexión emocional con la marca, no ya para reforzar esta sino al menos para no afectarla negativamente.  Cualquier cosa menos teatralización, emoción, participación o implicación sensorial.

En definitiva, muy lejos de una experiencia memorable.

Y sobre todo, muy lejos de la magia.

Saludos muy cordiales

 

14
Sep

Hello again, I hope you had a nice summer!

In several discussions I have about sports marketing and sports business in general, many people seem to confuse the “sports” with the “business” side. A frequent confusion is the one of “sports value” with “brand value”. This point is subtle, because the two are frequently correlated. For example, Real Madrid FC is doing great from both a sports and a business perspective. It is both a great brand and a great team, and one side helps the other.

A recent case from Greek football however clearly illustrates that these two aspects can be very different. Here is a summary of the story. The formerly public Greek betting agency (ΟPAP), was always the most important sponsor for the Greek football “Super League” (the Greek equivalent for “La Liga”). The plan was the same for the coming 2013-14 season. However, the situation changed when a major club of “Super League” (AEK Athens) was relegated  to play at a lower-level league.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The new management of OPAP, judged that this major drawback from the sports side would have a little impact on the value of the brand “AEK Athens”. Thus, it decided to keep sponsoring AEK, with an amount that is a lot higher than the amounts received by many current “Super League” clubs. From a marketing perspective, this seems to make sense. If many eyes are watching AEK every weekend, then putting your brand on the jerseys is clearly desirable.

This decision however was not accepted as easily by other interested parties. First, the clubs that will be playing with AEK Athens (and which have a lot less commercial value) next year, see this sponsorship as contaminating the competition. They would have to play against an opponent with much more resources. Then, the “Super League” clubs are furious to see that a club not competing at top national level is getting more money than they are. Many of these clubs (including the champion Olympiacos FC) have already publicly declared that they will deny the sponsorship from OPAP this year, as a sign of protest.

This case, although extreme, is not the only one. For instance, Liverpool FC has been struggling sports-wise for many years, but it is still a great brand in the UK. Similarly, the Chicago Bulls have not won the NBA title for some 15 years, but their brand is still strong.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To conclude, in several businesses (e.g., sports, education, health), marketing actions that make perfect sense from a business perspective, might raise problems if the non-business perspective is neglected. Reconciling the two perspectives is the job of a good marketing manager, but the question “How much should we consider business vs. non-business” is not an easy one to answer.

What do you think?

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

Antonios . Stamatogiannakis @ ie . edu

9
Sep

“Engineers have done their job, marketers have not”

Written on September 9, 2013 by María López Escorial in Bottom of the Pyramid, Marketing Strategy

From my point of view, one of the most striking findings of the Hystra report about “Marketing innovative devices at the base of the pyramid”, is the fact that products are there, research is done, prices adjusted, production sorted out, manufacturing organized but we can not manage to get the bottom of the pyramid consumers to demand a product that would change their lives.

If we are selling affordable most needed products, why consumers do not buy them?

In most marketing courses, we study the importance of understanding the consumer buying process and its motivations. Are consumers at the BOP different? Are their economic constraints so high as to make them take non-logic decisions?

It seems to be other reasons….
Some have to do with the fact that most BOP specific products, are consumer durables and the expected benefits are not seen immediately but in the future. Consumers have to make a trade off between future savings or benefits and an immediate cost increase, moreover when many of them have to finance the product they are buying, as they do not have the cash on hand.

india_reading Enjoying a new solar lamp.

Furthermore, with the fact that, the future benefits are unknown and unfamiliar for them and most people in their community, as they are all brand new products (stoves, lamps, water purifiers, latrines,..) paring an appropriate aversion to change long standing practices. Having said that, it seems that the most adequate promotion strategy for these products should focus on early adopters, pioneers and free demonstrations.

Distribution reliability and after sales service are also a big hurdle… most products do have a technology component or need some kind of maintenance and the geographically dispersion of the most poor, mainly in rural areas, makes this product feature quite unreliable.

It is easier when we talk about pull products such as mobile telephones or consumers goods. However, most products specifically directed to the BOP are push products which makes demand generation a huge task and a big barrier to successful growth.

As an example, look at the Indian company Global Easy Water Products (GEWP) selling irrigation systems able to increase crop yields by 50% and achieving significant reductions in water and energy use, with a huge market potential. They had to invest $11.5 million of a grant awarded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation on demand stimulation activities design to make farmers aware of the benefits of drip irrigation to overcome farmer reticence as they did not have previous experience, and therefore did not have appreciation of its benefits. This investment resulted in the real acceleration of sales, increasing annual sales growth rate from 40% in the years previous to the marketing investment to 73% in the subsequent years.

irrigation systems GEWP Irrigation system instalation

In summary, looking at marketing 4 P´s, when talking about marketing to the BOP: product and price seem to be there, distribution (place) and communication (promotion) are still a big challenge.

What do you think?

I will wait for your comments! here and at @marialescorial

8
Sep

Volvemos después de un necesitado descanso. El verano ha dejado muchas cosas tras de sí y tenemos mucho que comentar por delante. Y hoy quiero empezar haciéndolo con el reposicionamiento de Lady Gaga y Hannah Montana (Miley Cyrus).

Jeff Kravitz

Aunque ninguna de las dos necesitan presentación, os hago un esbozo del punto de partida:

  • Lady Gaga es un icono musical, con un excelente posicionamiento entre veinteañeros y grupos alternativos, logrado entre otras cosas a golpe de performance. Entendiendo como performance su capacidad para sorprendernos una y otra vez con disfraces imposibles. De tal manera que llegó a un punto en el que ya daba igual lo que dijera o cantara, lo que esperábamos y queríamos ver era con qué nuevo look aparecía.
  • Miley Cyrus era hasta hace poco un icono contrapuesto. Fruto de la fábrica Disney, era más conocida como Hannah Montana, icono adorado por el público adolescente y que encarnaba los mejores valores familiares y tradicionales.

hannah montana

Iconos de gran éxito las dos por lo tanto, con una imagen muy bien definida y un problema en común: Las dos parecían haber agotado su recorrido, y necesitaban evolucionar. En el caso de Lady Gaga, por motivos de salud (su atuenda atentaba contra su salud), la imposibilidad de estar toda la vida deslumbrando, y la necesidad de llegar a un público más amplio. Y en de Miley Cyrus, para explotar sus dotes artísticas, llegar a un público más adulto, posicionarse a sí misma como artista más madura, y hacer olvidar a la buena de Hannah Montana.

Ante esto, ¿qué ha hecho cada una?

La aproximación de Lady Gaga ha sido bastante inteligente. Después de una forzosa retirada de los escenarios (y de los medios sociales) por motivos de salud, rompió de repente su silencio con un look sorprendente, que ha ido mostrando poco a poco: Su look natural. Es decir, una imagen sin disfraces, aunque manteniendo su discurso alternativo e integrador para con sus “little monsters”.

lady gaga normal

En definitiva, se ha reposicionado sin renunciar a atributos base, que hacen que su público no se haya sentido alienado y abrace el cambio, mientras migra a una imagen sostenible y de mayor alcance.

Y en el otro extremo tenemos Miley Cyrus. Hablo de otro extremo pues su camino va en sentido exactamente contrario al de Lady Gaga, y ha sido completamente desacertado.  Porque en el mundo del Marketing en general, el cómo puede llegar a ser incluso más importante que el qué; y aunque el qué tenga sentido, un cómo mal diseñado puede ser devastador…

Que es lo que a mi entender, sucedió en los premios de la MTV con un show esperpéntico, en el que efectivamente dejó claro que Hannah Montana había muerto, para dar paso a una suerte de pelele de mal gusto y bastante vulgar:

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Dicen que Miley Cyrus sabía perfectamente lo que hizo. Creo que no. Hizo lo que le dijeron sus asesores, pero no era consciente de los efectos de la actuación… No dijo que la escena no sea remontable, pero sí que va a tener mucho mucho trabajo para hacerlo olvidar…

Con lo que adelante con las reinvenciones y reposicionamientos, , pero cuidando en detalle el cómo, no sea que nazca algo indeseado.

Espero vuestros comentarios en @ignaciogafo.

THINK DIFFERENT!!!

Ignacio Gafo

10
Aug

Young males, living in big cities…

Written on August 10, 2013 by Antonios Stamatogiannakis in ADVERTISING, International Marketing

In several of my classes, this is how students (especially those with little marketing training) describe market segments for a product or service; Gender, age (or age range), and geographical location. Then the discussion goes on with me explaining that such description is inadequate, or even misleading, and that a more appropriate description should include “psychographic” and/ or “behavioral” elements as well. At this point, I sense several students wondering: “What does this mean?” “What is psychographic, anyway?” “What is the use of this, besides learning more fancy marketing buzzwords?”

Well, here is an excellent example from McDonald’s advertisements in China that shows why. The target segment of McDonald’s is exactly: “young males, living in big cities”. These are the people who are more likely to opt for fast food versus other, more expensive or time-consuming eating options. This targeting was reflected in a controversial campaign that provided discounts to male customers only.

When however MacDonald’s had to decide on the advertising, they realized that “young males, living in big cities” see themselves differently, and aspire for very different things depending on the big city that they live in. Thus, in their “Manly Man” campaign, McDonald’s created different ads for different cities, trying to appeal to characteristics of the target segment deeper than “gender, age, location.” Some of these characteristics were very common among young males (e.g., interest in females), but others were tailored to the specific image of a “Manly Man” in different regions of China.
Young males living in Shenzhen, the first “special economic zone” in China, saw an advertisement stressing the importance of career in a man’s life:

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Young males living in Shanghai, where a man must take good care of his wife and home, saw an advertisement stressing these qualities:

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And young males living in Beijing, saw an advertisement stressing that real men are tough and decisive:

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Interestingly, regardless of whether the focus is on career achievement, care-taking, or toughness, the slogan is always the same: “Manly Man”. Thus, the different foci of the ads do not merely reflect differences in how desirable some traits are in different parts of China. Rather, they show that these characteristics (successful, care-taker, tough) define what a “manly man” is in each of these cities, at a deeper “psychographic” and “behavioral” level.

 

Antonios (Adoni) Stamatogiannakis, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
IE Business School – IE University

antonios.stamatogiannakis@ie.edu

29
Jul

TeleKAM brokers, a new breed

Written on July 29, 2013 by Claire Bastien in Sales Management

Talking with a friend who works in Quantum Telcom, it became fascinating to realize that this business involves aspects of stock-broking, speculation in future markets like rice or petrol and also pure gambling. A bad decision can have direct consequences for example imagine a contract selling traffic – telephone minutes – to a South African company during the World Cup and then having connection problems from your supplying operator.

Traditional telecommunications has been direct sales from provider to customer, for example Telefonica to me. During the last few years, new players have arrived to the market. Essentially brokers or re-sellers, who are intermediaries in the B2B market of voice termination. They ensure the routing of a telephone call, these companies buy from one supplier (an operator) to another, hopefully at a profit.

Voice Termination

This dynamic new market is exploding now with globalization. However the margins are very small and so volume of business becomes very important. These companies are selling minutes but perhaps more important than price is reliability (cheap prices are useless if calls are continually dropped). In this sector there is a limited number of clients and a lot of companies competing for their business. Companies, who invest in IT have a distinct advantage as the reliability of their server becomes paramount.

KAM in voice termination spends more time marketing to and building relationships with existing and potential clients. Additionally the KAM needs to be well informed, educated in the market and paying attention to social and politic events in order to quickly react.

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